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【媒库文选】移民如何塑造了美国的鸡尾酒文化

2016-12-30 14:28:01 来源:参考消息网 责任编辑:朱方雨

核心提示:设想一下,如果面对生活中的重重艰难险阻,我们能够借以浇愁的只有美国的先驱们即将步入19世纪时,也就是一波又一波移民浪潮抵达我们的海滩之前所喝的那些酒,那会怎样?

Imagine if the only drinks we had to wash us over the rocky shoals of life were the same ones our American ancestors drank on the brink of the nineteenth century, before all those waves of immigrants hit our shores.

Back then, American drinking was English drinking, with just a shade of Dutch and German and West African drinking mixed in, along with a handful of local twists and hacks. That meant that the basic building blocks were rum, raw rye whiskey, Dutch-style gin,plus apple and peach brandy, Madeira wine, cider and ale.

If you find all that a bit monotonous, you're not alone: in fact, that's pretty much what drinkers thought then. The first 30 years of the nineteenth century saw American bartenders making extraordinary efforts to, if you will, shake things up.

Then came the immigrants. The 1840s brought vast numbers of people to America, mostly from Germany and Ireland. The Irish, who had not yet taken up stout as their primary national drink,at least brought no innovations: they drank whiskey, we had whiskey (in fact, Irish whiskey then had a considerable proportion of rye in it and they had no trouble adapting to our straight rye).

The Germans, however, brought real novelties. Lager beer, their national drink, was as yet unfamiliar in America, strange as that might seem considering the oceans of the stuff we drain every year. It was not greeted with universal approbation.

But the Germans brought more than lager with them. They also brought their own tradition of mixology, one that was a good deal more fanciful than the one they found here. When German immigrants began stepping behind American bars, naturally they turned to this tradition.

In German hands, Juleps weren't just spirits, sugar, ice and mint. They were cunningly blended from imported brandy, ports, sherries,dashes of this and splashes of that. And, it turns out, American drinkers liked that.

While the Germans, as a group, had the greatest impact on our way of drinking, there were plenty of other immigrants who made their mark. French and Italian immigrants brought their vermouth with them, and their own mixological skills. In the years before the Civil War, Joseph Santini, an Italian, ran the fanciest bar in New Orleans, inventing the famous Brandy Crusta in the process.

In New York, “Panama Joe” Fernandez, who came here from that country in 1846, became the city's acknowledged master at mixing the plain Cocktail, even presiding at a famous contest between the Irish Lord Louth and one Mr. Tracy from Buffalo to see who could drink more of them. Even the Irish finally broke down and got into the mixology game, producing one of the great successes of the early twentieth century, the Bronx Cocktail.

I could go on; the twentieth century brought its own immigrants and their own contributions—vodka, tequila, the Daiquiri, to name three—that are now indispensable parts of what we drink. But by then the framework had been set.

It wasn't just that immigrants invented specific cocktails or brought specific ingredients with them when they came here. They changed the American mind when it came to drinks. Bartenders learned to welcome new ingredients, rather than reject them;if not everyone went along, there were plenty who would. (That spirit continues today—modern American bartenders are even working with Chinese baijiu, one of the world's more pungent and mixology-resistant types of liquor.)

设想一下,如果面对生活中的重重艰难险阻,我们能够借以浇愁的只有美国的先驱们即将步入19世纪时,也就是一波又一波移民浪潮抵达我们的海滩之前所喝的那些酒,那会怎样?

那时,美国人喝的酒就是英国人喝的酒,只略微混入了一点荷兰人、德国人和西非人的酒,还有当地屈指可数的几种花样。这意味着最基础的就是朗姆酒、黑麦威士忌、荷兰风格的杜松子酒,再加上苹果和桃子白兰地、马德拉白葡萄酒、苹果汁和浓啤酒。

如果觉得这些略显单调,那抱有这种想法的并非只有你一个人:事实上,当时喝酒的人几乎都这样想。19世纪的前30年,如果你愿意的话,美国的酒保们会付出九牛二虎之力把各种东西混到一起摇匀。

随后移民来了。19世纪40年代,大批移民拥入美国,这些人大部分来自德国和爱尔兰。爱尔兰人当时尚未把黑啤作为他们首要的国饮,至少没有带来任何创新:他们喝威士忌,而我们本来就有威士忌(事实上,那时的爱尔兰威士忌含有相当一部分黑麦,因此他们毫不费力地就适应了我们的黑麦威士忌)。

然而,德国人带来了真正的新东西。作为他们国饮的贮藏啤酒当时在美国尚未为人熟知,尽管想到我们现在每年鲸吞海吸的大量贮藏啤酒,这一点可能显得有点不可思议。当时这种啤酒并未受到普遍接纳。

但是,德国人带来的不只是贮藏啤酒。他们还带来了自己调制混合酒的传统,那远比他们在这里看到的调制方法更富有奇思妙想。当德国移民站到美国酒吧的柜台后面,他们很自然地采用了自己的传统。

在德国人的手中,冰镇薄荷酒不仅仅是酒精、糖、冰块和薄荷。它们巧妙地混合了进口白兰地、波尔图葡萄酒、雪利酒和一点这个一点那个。而结果是,美国的酒徒们喜欢这口。

尽管作为一个群体,德国人对我们的喝酒方式影响最大,但还有许多其他移民也产生了深远影响。法国和意大利移民带来了他们的苦艾酒和他们自己的调酒技巧。在南北战争前的那些年,意大利人约瑟夫·圣蒂尼经营着新奥尔良最高档的酒吧,并在这一过程中发明了著名的白兰地克鲁斯塔。

在纽约,1846年从巴拿马来到美国的“巴拿马乔”·费尔南德斯成为这个城市里公认的调制普通鸡尾酒的大师,甚至主持了爱尔兰的劳思勋爵和来自布法罗的一位特雷西先生之间一场远近闻名的比赛,看谁能喝下的鸡尾酒更多。就连爱尔兰人最终也撑不住了,加入了这场调制混合酒的游戏之中,并带来了20世纪初期最成功的鸡尾酒之一——布朗克斯鸡尾酒。

我可以一直说下去,20世纪带来了这个时期的移民和他们自己的酒——伏特加、龙舌兰、台克利,仅举三种,这些酒现在都是我们喝的酒中必不可少的部分。但那时基本框架已经确定。

移民们并非只发明了特有的鸡尾酒,或者来到这里的时候带来了专门的原料。他们改变了美国人对待酒的心态。酒保们学会了欢迎而非拒绝新的原料,即便不是所有人都赞同这样做,支持的人也是相当多的。(这种精神今天仍在延续——现代的美国酒保们甚至开始利用中国的白酒,这是世界上比较辛辣而且拒绝混合的酒类之一。)(刘晓燕译自美国《新闻周刊》网站12月2日文章)

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