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【媒库文选】给电于民:非洲电气化势在必行

2017-04-18 15:02:01 来源:参考消息网 责任编辑:陈雪莲

核心提示:在科特迪瓦,孩子们背着装有内置太阳能电池板的书包上学。回到家后,他们把电池板插到灯里就可以做家庭作业。

Power to the People:Electrify Africa Now

给电于民:非洲电气化势在必行

n Cote d'Ivoire, children carry backpacks to school with built-in solar panels. When they get home, they plug the panels into lamps so they can do their homework.

On the other side of the continent, rural households pay as little as 50 cents a day for solar electricity systems that power three lights,five phone-charging connections and a radio.

Across Africa, these and many other ingenious solutions are helping to meet the continent's huge energy needs much faster than conventional means.

That speed is critical. Africa's energy needs are not only huge, but they are also urgent. Day after day, the continent's lack of modern energy is holding back economic growth, job creation, sustainable agriculture,health and education.

The challenge for governments, their development partners and the private sector is how to electrify millions of African households,remote communities and small-scale entrepreneurs as quickly as possible. To meet that challenge, countries need to consider every available option, including off-grid household systems and mini-grids, as well as the expansion of national grids.

New technologies offer promising ways to close Africa's energy gap more quickly than would be possible by relying on grid connections alone. Off-grid solar power and mini-grids, as standalone sources of energy generating power where it's needed, have vast potential to advance access to electricity in sub-Saharan Africa.

Off-grid solar products can act as rungs on an“energy ladder”,providing a range of energy services to households and enterprises with different energy needs and incomes. Families can take advantage of innovative pay-as-you-go schemes, often using mobile phone payment to move from solar lighting onto systems that are a step-up and able to generate enough power for several household appliances.

Community services such as schools and health clinics can also be powered using off-grid solar energy, which can also improve the productivity of farms and small companies. Technological innovation means that mini-grids can also offer sustainable permanent alternatives, especially as reliable and affordable products come on-stream that are attractive to small and medium-sized enterprises operating far from the national grid.

In short, off-grid and mini-grid power has a crucial role to play in meeting the three great energy challenges that African governments face: providing all their citizens with access to secure and affordable energy; building the energy infrastructure needed to drive inclusive growth and create jobs; and limiting carbon emissions.

To make that happen, African governments need to support the development of an enabling environment through which companies can enter energy generation, transmission and distribution markets, climb the value chain and build the investment partnerships that can drive growth and create jobs.

To tap the potential of new energy technologies, African governments need all the support they can get. Bilateral and multilateral donors have pledged billions of dollars to Africa's energy transition, but little of that money is moving yet. Donors need to realize that Africa's energy imperative is urgent.

On-grid and off-grid, we have the technologies that Africa needs to bring energy to everyone. Let's get to work.

在科特迪瓦,孩子们背着装有内置太阳能电池板的书包上学。回到家后,他们把电池板插到灯里就可以做家庭作业。

在大陆的另一边,农村家庭每天支付区区50美分来使用太阳能发电系统,供三盏灯照明、给五部电话充电和收听一台收音机。

在非洲各地,这些以及很多其他巧妙解决方案正以比常规手段快得多的速度帮助满足非洲大陆的巨大电力需求。

这个速度至关重要。非洲的电力需求不仅巨大,而且迫切。日复一日,这片大陆在现代能源方面的缺乏正在阻碍经济增长、就业创造、可持续农业、卫生和教育。

政府与其发展伙伴以及私营部门面临的挑战是,如何尽快让数百万非洲家庭、偏远社区和小型企业用上电。为应对这项挑战,各国需要考虑所有可选择方案,包括家用离网系统和微型电网,以及扩展国家电网。

新技术可以带来有前途的办法,比仅依靠电网连接更快地填补非洲电力缺口。离网太阳能和微型电网在需要时可作为独立的发电方式,拥有在撒哈拉沙漠以南非洲地区普及电力的巨大潜力。

离网太阳能产品可以充当“能源阶梯”的梯级,为有着不同能源需求和收入的家庭和企业提供各种各样的能源服务。家庭可以利用创新性的即付即用方案,往往是使用手机支付,由太阳能照明上升一步,转到能为多台家用电器生产足够电力的系统。

学校和诊所等社区服务也可以使用离网太阳能供电,离网太阳能还可以提高农场和小公司的生产率。技术创新意味着微型电网也可以提供可持续的永久性替代方案,特别是作为对远离国家电网运营的中小企业具有吸引力的可靠平价产品投入生产。

简而言之,离网和微型电网电力可以发挥重要作用来应对非洲各国政府面临的三大电力挑战:让所有公民都能获得有保障的平价电力,建设可促进包容性增长和创造就业所需的电力基础设施,限制碳排放。

为实现这一点,非洲各国政府需要扶持形成一个有利环境,让企业可以借此进入电力生产、传输和配送市场,向价值链高端攀升,并建立可以推动增长并创造就业的投资伙伴关系。

为挖掘新能源技术的潜力,非洲各国政府需要得到尽可能多的支持。双边和多边捐助机构已经承诺为非洲的能源转型提供数十亿美元,但这笔钱几乎完全没有到位。捐助机构需要明白,非洲的能源需求十分迫切。

不管是并网还是离网,我们拥有非洲把电力带给每个人所需的技术。我们行动起来吧。(作者为联合国前秘书长。李莎译自美国有线电视新闻网网站3月13日文章)

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