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参考消息

【媒库文选】护士的使命:让老年病患回家受助

2018-02-13 14:02:02 来源:参考消息网 责任编辑:王露露

核心提示:住院有可能让老年病人的病情加重。感染、尿失禁以及卧床休息导致的肌肉衰弱可能会发展为神志不清、身体虚弱甚至死亡。超过30%的老年人出院回家时伴有在医院患上的或轻或重的健康问题。

Nurses with a mission:

Send older ER patients home with help

护士的使命:让老年病患回家受助

Carla Johnson 卡拉·约翰逊

hen 86-year-old Carol Wittwer took a taxi to the emergency room, she expected to be admitted to the hospital. She didn't anticipate being asked if she cooks for herself. If she has friends in her high-rise. Or if she could spell lunch backward.

"H-C-N-U-L," she said, ruling out a type of confusion called delirium for the geriatrics-trained nurse of Northwestern Memorial Hospital's emergency department.

Wittwer's care is part of a new approach to older patients as U.S. emergency rooms adapt to serve the complex needs of a graying population. That means asking more questions, asking them earlier and, when possible, avoiding a hospital stay for many older patients.

The surprising truth? Hospitals can make older patients sicker. Infections, incontinence and weakening muscles from bed rest can cascade into delirium, frailty and death. More than 30 percent of older adults go home from a hospital stay with a minor or major health problem they picked up at the hospital.

But for an ER doctor, sending an elderly patient home sometimes feels risky.

"The doctors are not comfortable sending you home unless you're safe," said Northwestern Medicine's Dwayne Dobschuetz, "It's easier to admit older patients than to send them home."

Emergency rooms have been called the hospital's front door, so that's where reformers are starting.

"The emergency department is not designed with older adults in mind," said Dr. Scott Dresden, who heads the Geriatric Emergency Department Innovations program at Northwestern. "You've got really thin stretchers. You've got patients in the hallway. There's mechanical noise all around."

Early research at Northwestern and other hospitals shows care from geriatrics-trained nurses in the ER can reduce the chances of a hospital stay after a patient's emergency visit and for a month afterward.

About 100 hospitals in the United States have opened geriatric emergency departments or trained ER teams in geriatrics care. These teams can arrange home services such as light housekeeping or a break for a caregiver.

This kind of emergency medicine is only about a decade old. An influential 2007 article described the emergency department of the future, designed to prevent confusion and falls in the elderly and to increase their comfort.

It would have windows and skylights instead of windowless spaces with glaring bulbs. Pressure-reducing mattresses instead of thin ones. Soundproofing.

Above all, it would hire nurses trained to untangle the complex complaints of aging, slowing down the frenetic pace of the ER enough to fully evaluate each patient. Physical therapists and pharmacists would be ready to help out.

Now, the ideas are catching fire. Northwestern's geriatrics ER has soundproofed rooms with comfortable beds and windows. Hospitals in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Wisconsin, Illinois and Georgia formed a collaborative to share ideas.

The latest nudge is an accreditation program, launched this year.

"We want to have at least 50 certified hospitals by the end of 2018," said Dr. Kevin Biese of University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, who leads the accreditation push for the American College of Emergency Physicians.

Wittwer might have been admitted to the hospital before the GEDI program. Instead, the team set her up with home visits from a nurse and a physical therapist.

"They were great," Wittwer said of the nurses a few days later from her high-rise apartment. "It looks like an army of people are going to be coming over here today. I'll be OK."

当86岁的卡罗尔·威特沃乘坐出租车来到急诊室的时候,她以为要被收治入院;不料被问了几个问题:她是否自己做饭;在她所住的高层楼房里有没有朋友;或者她能不能倒着拼写“午餐”(英文为LUNCH)这个词。

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