2021-08-23 19:42:00 来源:参考消息网 责任编辑:卫嘉

参考消息网8月23日报道

Business Is Using Less Carrot and More Stick on Vaccinations

接种疫苗要拾“大棒”弃“胡萝卜”

Drake Bennett 德雷克·贝内特

The belief that vaccination should be a matter of personal choice managed to survive almost a year and a half of the Covid-19 pandemic. For months, employers eager to find a way to get workers and customers back to their businesses saw vaccines as vital, but stopped short of measures that felt coercive. Walmart Inc.'s approach—paying the store workers who make up the bulk of its 1.5 million U.S. employees $75 for a jab—was typical. When the New York-Presbyterian Hospital system announced a vaccine requirement for its employees several weeks ago, it triggered demonstrations outside its main campus in upper Manhattan. The signs waved by the protesting workers summed up the delicate dance government officials and employers were attempting: “Vaccination Yes. Mandate No.”

The shift from carrot to stick since then has been abrupt. As the more infectious delta variant has driven a dramatic rise in cases—the vast majority among the tens of millions of American adults who, despite ample opportunity, remain unvaccinated—a growing number of large employers have announced that they are giving up on moral suasion and inducement. In recent weeks, Google and Facebook have announced that employees returning to their offices must be vaccinated. Walmart mandated vaccination for the mostly white-collar workforce at its corporate headquarters.

Vaccine mandates aren't new. In the U.S., all 50 states have vaccination requirements of some form for infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, and rubella. And past plagues have triggered broader mandates, too.

Of course, there remains a gap between what public officials are constitutionally empowered to do and what they feel politically able to do. While the governments of Italy and France have in recent weeks passed laws making vaccines or weekly Covid tests mandatory for dining inside the restaurants and cafes so central to life in those countries, President Joe Biden has taken a softer approach:publicly touting vaccination, criticizing anti-vaccine politicians, and issuing “attaboys”to companies that have issued their own mandates. Those vaccine mandates his administration has issued cover only employees of the federal government itself.

The closest thing to clarity from the federal government that employers and employees are likely to see in the coming weeks is full Food and Drug Administration approval of the Pfizer, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson vaccines, all of which have been administered under emergency-use authorizations thus far. That may or may not reassure those employees who remain hesitant about the shots. But it's likely to convince employers that they're on firmer ground compelling them.

是否接种疫苗应该是个人选择,这种观点在新冠疫情暴发近一年半后依然存在。几个月来,那些急于找到一种办法让员工返岗、客户回流的雇主虽然认为接种疫苗至关重要,但都没敢采取带有强制意味的措施。沃尔玛的做法——在其150万美国员工中占多数的门店员工接种一剂新冠疫苗可获75美元的奖励——就十分典型。几周前,纽约长老会医院系统宣布其员工必须接种新冠疫苗,引发抗议人群在其位于曼哈顿上城的主院区外聚集。员工挥舞的抗议标语概括了政府官员和雇主试图把握的微妙分寸:“打疫苗,可以。强制打,不行。”

参考消息网8月23日报道

Business Is Using Less Carrot and More Stick on Vaccinations

接种疫苗要拾“大棒”弃“胡萝卜”

Drake Bennett 德雷克·贝内特

The belief that vaccination should be a matter of personal choice managed to survive almost a year and a half of the Covid-19 pandemic. For months, employers eager to find a way to get workers and customers back to their businesses saw vaccines as vital, but stopped short of measures that felt coercive. Walmart Inc.'s approach—paying the store workers who make up the bulk of its 1.5 million U.S. employees $75 for a jab—was typical. When the New York-Presbyterian Hospital system announced a vaccine requirement for its employees several weeks ago, it triggered demonstrations outside its main campus in upper Manhattan. The signs waved by the protesting workers summed up the delicate dance government officials and employers were attempting: “Vaccination Yes. Mandate No.”

The shift from carrot to stick since then has been abrupt. As the more infectious delta variant has driven a dramatic rise in cases—the vast majority among the tens of millions of American adults who, despite ample opportunity, remain unvaccinated—a growing number of large employers have announced that they are giving up on moral suasion and inducement. In recent weeks, Google and Facebook have announced that employees returning to their offices must be vaccinated. Walmart mandated vaccination for the mostly white-collar workforce at its corporate headquarters.

Vaccine mandates aren't new. In the U.S., all 50 states have vaccination requirements of some form for infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, and rubella. And past plagues have triggered broader mandates, too.

Of course, there remains a gap between what public officials are constitutionally empowered to do and what they feel politically able to do. While the governments of Italy and France have in recent weeks passed laws making vaccines or weekly Covid tests mandatory for dining inside the restaurants and cafes so central to life in those countries, President Joe Biden has taken a softer approach:publicly touting vaccination, criticizing anti-vaccine politicians, and issuing “attaboys”to companies that have issued their own mandates. Those vaccine mandates his administration has issued cover only employees of the federal government itself.

The closest thing to clarity from the federal government that employers and employees are likely to see in the coming weeks is full Food and Drug Administration approval of the Pfizer, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson vaccines, all of which have been administered under emergency-use authorizations thus far. That may or may not reassure those employees who remain hesitant about the shots. But it's likely to convince employers that they're on firmer ground compelling them.

是否接种疫苗应该是个人选择,这种观点在新冠疫情暴发近一年半后依然存在。几个月来,那些急于找到一种办法让员工返岗、客户回流的雇主虽然认为接种疫苗至关重要,但都没敢采取带有强制意味的措施。沃尔玛的做法——在其150万美国员工中占多数的门店员工接种一剂新冠疫苗可获75美元的奖励——就十分典型。几周前,纽约长老会医院系统宣布其员工必须接种新冠疫苗,引发抗议人群在其位于曼哈顿上城的主院区外聚集。员工挥舞的抗议标语概括了政府官员和雇主试图把握的微妙分寸:“打疫苗,可以。强制打,不行。”

从那以后,“胡萝卜”突然变成“大棒”。随着传染性更强的德尔塔变异毒株导致感染病例激增——其中绝大多数是成年人,而数千万美国成年人有很多机会接种新冠疫苗却至今未接种——越来越多的大机构和大企业宣布,他们将放弃道义劝说和激励措施。近几周来,谷歌和脸书都宣布,返回工作岗位的员工必须接种新冠疫苗。沃尔玛要求总部员工(其中多数为白领)必须接种新冠疫苗。

强制接种疫苗并不是什么新鲜事。全美50个州对于传染病(例如麻疹、腮腺炎和风疹)都有一定形式的疫苗接种要求。以往的疫情也曾促使强制接种的范围扩大。

当然,宪法赋予公职人员的权力与他们从政治角度认为自己所能做的仍有巨大差距。近几周来,意大利和法国的政府颁布法律,对这些国家日常生活中至关重要的室内餐厅和咖啡厅就餐做出强制规定,要求就餐者必须接种新冠疫苗或每周进行新冠病毒检测。乔·拜登总统则采取了更温和的手段:公开肯定接种疫苗的作用;批评反对接种疫苗的政客;表扬那些自己发布了强制接种规定的企业。目前,拜登政府颁布的强制接种规定只适用于联邦政府工作人员。

未来几周,雇主和员工可能从联邦政府看到最接近清晰的举动——美国食品和药物管理局将全面批准使用辉瑞、莫德纳和强生疫苗。截至目前,这些疫苗是依据紧急使用授权施打的。这能否让犹豫不决的雇员打消顾虑还不得而知。但它也许能让雇主相信,他们强制要求接种疫苗的做法有了更坚实的依据。(刘白云译自8月12日美国《彭博商业周刊》网站)

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