2021-09-25 13:33:42 来源:参考消息网 责任编辑:张威威

参考消息网9月25日报道

How Women Conquered College and the Future

女性如何征服大学和未来

Samuel Goldman 塞缪尔·戈德曼

Judging by movies and TV series like the The Chair, college is dominated by strutting jocks among the students and tweedy graybeards on the faculty.

But it's been a long time since that was true. Despite its anachronistic reputation, the college population is increasingly female. Surveying recent data, The Wall Street Journal finds that women made up nearly 60 percent of enrollment in the 2020-21 academic year. Women are not just more likely to attend college, but also more likely to graduate. According to the report, about two thirds of women who enroll at a four-year institution graduate within six years, compared with 59 percent of men.

The burgeoning gender gap is an open secret in higher education. With none of the fanfare that accompanies their pursuit of racial diversity, many institutions give an admissions advantage to men. One reason is that administrators fear women are also less likely to enroll when the male student population drops below 40 percent.

Women's success in admissions isn't only a dilemma for colleges trying to balance their books. Because elite institutions hire almost exclusively college graduates, campuses are the point of departure for female dominance of publishing, the culture industry,and areas of the corporate world — particularly the massive human resources industry.

Skeptics might observe that the upper tiers of these fields remain dominated by men. That's right, but largely a generation effect. Today's non-profit trustees, tenured professors, and executive editors began their careers decades ago, when college student bodies were more equally divided (and in some cases,exclusively male). It would be surprising if the gender ratio in upper management remained the same in another 20 years.

There's also a meritocratic case for the female future. As The Wall Street Journal notes, the proximate reasons women outnumber men in higher education are that they apply in larger numbers, are more attentive to the admissions process and other administrative hurdles, get better grades, and lead more orderly lives.

Declining educational attainment for men means lower wages and declining marriage rates, which promote family instability. In the long run, un- or under-employed men and unstable households are correlated with violent crime. It's not a straight causal arrow, but the dwindling share of men in higher education and the jobs it supplies could be downright dangerous.

Although their student populations have changed, American higher education continues to be characterized by a streak of elite moralism that's survived in mutated form since its origins in religious instruction. Academic and administrative hurdles can be reduced, but universities need to take seriously men's perception that universities don't want them.

It's not all tweed and Ivy. But some of the cliches about campus life are true.

从《英文系主任》等影视作品来看,在大学里,学生大多是趾高气昂的运动健将,教职员工大多是穿粗花呢西服的老教授。

参考消息网9月25日报道

How Women Conquered College and the Future

女性如何征服大学和未来

Samuel Goldman 塞缪尔·戈德曼

Judging by movies and TV series like the The Chair, college is dominated by strutting jocks among the students and tweedy graybeards on the faculty.

But it's been a long time since that was true. Despite its anachronistic reputation, the college population is increasingly female. Surveying recent data, The Wall Street Journal finds that women made up nearly 60 percent of enrollment in the 2020-21 academic year. Women are not just more likely to attend college, but also more likely to graduate. According to the report, about two thirds of women who enroll at a four-year institution graduate within six years, compared with 59 percent of men.

The burgeoning gender gap is an open secret in higher education. With none of the fanfare that accompanies their pursuit of racial diversity, many institutions give an admissions advantage to men. One reason is that administrators fear women are also less likely to enroll when the male student population drops below 40 percent.

Women's success in admissions isn't only a dilemma for colleges trying to balance their books. Because elite institutions hire almost exclusively college graduates, campuses are the point of departure for female dominance of publishing, the culture industry,and areas of the corporate world — particularly the massive human resources industry.

Skeptics might observe that the upper tiers of these fields remain dominated by men. That's right, but largely a generation effect. Today's non-profit trustees, tenured professors, and executive editors began their careers decades ago, when college student bodies were more equally divided (and in some cases,exclusively male). It would be surprising if the gender ratio in upper management remained the same in another 20 years.

There's also a meritocratic case for the female future. As The Wall Street Journal notes, the proximate reasons women outnumber men in higher education are that they apply in larger numbers, are more attentive to the admissions process and other administrative hurdles, get better grades, and lead more orderly lives.

Declining educational attainment for men means lower wages and declining marriage rates, which promote family instability. In the long run, un- or under-employed men and unstable households are correlated with violent crime. It's not a straight causal arrow, but the dwindling share of men in higher education and the jobs it supplies could be downright dangerous.

Although their student populations have changed, American higher education continues to be characterized by a streak of elite moralism that's survived in mutated form since its origins in religious instruction. Academic and administrative hurdles can be reduced, but universities need to take seriously men's perception that universities don't want them.

It's not all tweed and Ivy. But some of the cliches about campus life are true.

从《英文系主任》等影视作品来看,在大学里,学生大多是趾高气昂的运动健将,教职员工大多是穿粗花呢西服的老教授。

但现实早已不是这样。虽然顶着时代错误的名声,但大学的女性比例越来越高。《华尔街日报》查阅最近的数据发现,女性约占2020至2021学年大学录取学生总数的60%。女性不仅上大学的比例更高,毕业的比例也更高。根据这篇报道,约2/3进入四年制大学的女性在六年内毕业,而男性的这个比例仅为59%。

这种急剧扩大的性别差异成为高等教育公开的秘密。许多高校在招生时给予男性优待,但不像追求种族多元化时那样大张旗鼓。给予男性优待的一个原因是,高校管理者担心,当男生的比例降至40%以下时,女性的入学人数也将下降。

女性在大学录取方面的胜出不仅是寻求男女比例平衡的高校的两难处境。由于精英机构几乎只聘用大学毕业生,大学校园就成为女性主导出版业、文化产业和企业界——尤其是庞大的人力资源领域——的起点。

怀疑论者也许会说,这些领域的中高层仍是男性的天下。这样说没错,但它主要是代际效应。今天的非营利受托人、终身教授和总编的职业生涯都始于几十年前,当时高校学生的性别比例更加均衡(在某些情况下,只有男性)。如果再过20年中高管理层的性别比例仍没有变化,那就奇怪了。

女性的这种未来还有英才教育因素。正如《华尔街日报》所指出的,高等教育中女性多于男性的最直接原因是,女性申请入学人数更多,更关注申请流程和其他行政障碍,成绩更好,生活也更有条理。

男性受教育程度下降意味着收入下降和结婚率下降,而这将加剧家庭的不稳定。长期来看,失业或未充分就业的男性和不稳定的家庭与暴力犯罪有关。虽然不是直接因果关系,但在高等教育及其所提供的岗位中男性比例下降的确十分危险。

尽管学生的性别比例发生了变化,但美国高等教育仍以一系列精英道德主义为特点,它起源于宗教教导,通过改变形态延续至今。教务和行政上的障碍可以减少,但大学需要严肃对待男性认为大学不想招收他们的想法。

粗花呢和常春藤并不是大学的全部。但有些关于大学生活的陈词滥调千真万确。(刘白云译自9月8日《一周》周刊网站)

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