2021-12-06 19:56:00 来源:参考消息网 责任编辑:黄晋一

参考消息网12月6日报道

Americans Are Moving West —But Also Toward Cities

美国人在向西移动——也在向城市移动

Philip Bump 菲利普·邦普

Every 10 years, the Census Bureau conducts a national tally of the population of the United States. Then, a few months later, it releases a particularly interesting little bit of trivia: where the center of the country's population can be found.

Think about it like this. Back in 1780,there were no states west of the Mississippi,so everyone lived close to the East Coast. The state with the largest population was Virginia, but the largest city was New York (as it always has been). So the midpoint of the country's entire population in 1790 was calculated as sitting just northeast of Virginia — on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay.

As the country expanded to the west,so did the country's population center. And so it was that on Tuesday the Census Bureau revealed a new average population center in southern Missouri.

The Bureau made a nice little map showing the progression of the population center since the country's founding. In some states, there hasn't been much movement. In others, there's been a lot. But there's a pattern that emerges. If we simplify the movement from the first population center to the most recent, that pattern may become more obvious.

Do you see it? The movement over time has been toward cities. In Illinois, the population center keeps shifting toward Chicago. In California, it's moving toward Los Angeles. In Nevada, toward Las Vegas. In New York,toward New York City. In Washington, toward Seattle. In Florida, toward Miami.

This is largely about the imbalance in population between urban and rural areas. America is increasingly urban as rural areas tend to see population declines. So, decade by decade, population centers shift toward cities in states where there's one particularly large urban center.

The graphs miss some of the nuance of the movement. Zoom in on Florida. Above, I pointed out that the state's population center had shifted toward Miami over time. But in the past two censuses, it shifted back north,heading back toward Orlando.

The fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States over the past decade was just outside Orlando: The Villages, a retirement community in Sumter County. This was one of the other key findings of the census. The U.S. population is getting older not just literally but on net, and places like the Villages are expanding in population as a result. That aging also contributes to the speed at which the population center is moving to the west.

Overall, the centerpoint of the American population is some rural point in the middle of Missouri. But the story within states is different, however obvious it might be: people have been moving toward density.

普查局每10年会对美国的人口进行一次全国性统计。几个月后,它会公布一个特别有意思的小细节:在哪里可以找到国家的人口中心。

参考消息网12月6日报道

Americans Are Moving West —But Also Toward Cities

美国人在向西移动——也在向城市移动

Philip Bump 菲利普·邦普

Every 10 years, the Census Bureau conducts a national tally of the population of the United States. Then, a few months later, it releases a particularly interesting little bit of trivia: where the center of the country's population can be found.

Think about it like this. Back in 1780,there were no states west of the Mississippi,so everyone lived close to the East Coast. The state with the largest population was Virginia, but the largest city was New York (as it always has been). So the midpoint of the country's entire population in 1790 was calculated as sitting just northeast of Virginia — on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay.

As the country expanded to the west,so did the country's population center. And so it was that on Tuesday the Census Bureau revealed a new average population center in southern Missouri.

The Bureau made a nice little map showing the progression of the population center since the country's founding. In some states, there hasn't been much movement. In others, there's been a lot. But there's a pattern that emerges. If we simplify the movement from the first population center to the most recent, that pattern may become more obvious.

Do you see it? The movement over time has been toward cities. In Illinois, the population center keeps shifting toward Chicago. In California, it's moving toward Los Angeles. In Nevada, toward Las Vegas. In New York,toward New York City. In Washington, toward Seattle. In Florida, toward Miami.

This is largely about the imbalance in population between urban and rural areas. America is increasingly urban as rural areas tend to see population declines. So, decade by decade, population centers shift toward cities in states where there's one particularly large urban center.

The graphs miss some of the nuance of the movement. Zoom in on Florida. Above, I pointed out that the state's population center had shifted toward Miami over time. But in the past two censuses, it shifted back north,heading back toward Orlando.

The fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States over the past decade was just outside Orlando: The Villages, a retirement community in Sumter County. This was one of the other key findings of the census. The U.S. population is getting older not just literally but on net, and places like the Villages are expanding in population as a result. That aging also contributes to the speed at which the population center is moving to the west.

Overall, the centerpoint of the American population is some rural point in the middle of Missouri. But the story within states is different, however obvious it might be: people have been moving toward density.

普查局每10年会对美国的人口进行一次全国性统计。几个月后,它会公布一个特别有意思的小细节:在哪里可以找到国家的人口中心。

想想看,1780年的时候,密西西比州的西边一个州也没有,因此所有人都住在靠近东海岸的地方。人口最多的州是弗吉尼亚州,但最大的城市是纽约(它一直都是)。因此,1790年美国全部人口的中心点算出来就位于弗吉尼亚州的东北部——在切萨皮克湾的东海滨。

随着国家向西扩张,国家的人口中心也向西移动。正因为如此,普查局周二公布的新平均人口中心位于密苏里州南部。

普查局绘制了一张精细的小地图,显示了建国以来人口中心的变迁。有些州的人口中心没怎么移动,而另外一些州的移动很大。但是,出现了一种模式。如果我们简化从最初的人口中心向最新人口中心的移动,这种模式也许会变得更明显。

看到了吗?这种移动是逐渐朝向城市的。在伊利诺伊州,人口中心不断向芝加哥移动。在加利福尼亚州,它在向洛杉矶移动。在内华达州,向拉斯维加斯移动。在纽约州,向纽约市移动。在华盛顿州,向西雅图移动。在佛罗里达州,向迈阿密移动。

这主要是因为城乡人口失衡。美国在日益城市化,而农村地区的人口则往往在减少。因此,在有显著大城市中心的州,人口中心一个十年又一个十年地向城市移动。

图表忽略了这种移动的一些细微之处。把佛罗里达州放大来看。我在前面指出了,该州的人口中心曾逐渐向迈阿密移动。但在过去两次人口普查中,它又掉头向北,重新向奥兰多移动。

美国过去十年发展最快的大都市区就位于奥兰多郊外:萨姆特县的养老社区“村群”。这是人口普查的其他重要发现之一。美国人口正在老龄化,不光是字面意义上,而且按净值计算也是如此。因此,在像“村群”这样的地方,人口不断增加。这种老龄化也加快了人口中心向西移动的速度。

总体而言,美国人口的中心点是位于密苏里州中部农村地区的某个点。但各州内部的情况不同,不管这可能有多么明显:人们一直在向人口密集的地方移动。(王雷译自美国《华盛顿邮报》网站11月20日文章)

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